Initial Bonding Process, Shear Strength and Interfacial Characterization Results of Copper Nanofoams Die-attach Interconnections

  • Authors:
    Kashyap Mohan (Georgia Tech), Ninad Shahane (Georgia Tech), Vanessa Smet (Georgia Tech), P. Markondeya Raj (Georgia Tech), Antonia Antoniou (Georgia Tech), Rao R. Tummala (Georgia Tech)
    Publication ID:
    Publication Type:
    Deliverable Report
    Received Date:
    Last Edit Date:
    2661.002 (Georgia Institute of Technology)

Research Report Highlight

Cu nanofoam was demonstrated to be a promising low-cost die-attach technology for wide bandgap power modules operating at temperatures > 250°C, with improved manufacturability, scalability and design flexibility compared to standard nanopaste approaches.


This report presents the first demonstration of nanocopper foam as a novel low-temperature die-attach joining technique for high-power, high-temperature applications. Nanoporous metals, here referred to as nanofoams, are proposed as a low-cost replacement of nano-sintering pastes with the following benefits: (i) synthesis by electrochemical dealloying, compatible with standard lithography processes; (ii) no organic content to minimize risks of voiding and corrosion; and (iii) controllable physical properties post sintering through tailorable initial nanostructure and morphology. As a first proof-of-concept, nano-Cu foams with a 25-50nm feature size and ~60% relative density were fabricated by dealloying of Cu-Si thin films. The nano-Cu foams were then sintered on bulk Cu metalizations at temperatures of 200-250ºC for 5-15min with an applied pressure of 6-9MPa, in reducing atmosphere. A maximum shear strength of 4.2kgf was achieved and analysis of the fracture profiles showed failure through the sintered joints, confirming strong metallurgical bonding to bulk Cu. Cross-sections of joints formed at 200ºC and 250ºC – 15min observed by SEM showed relative density as high as 85%, achieved for the first time with sintered copper.

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